Java vs Kotlin : All You Need to Know
For app developers, deciding between multiple programming languages is a daunting task. Java should be your first choice for creating a robust Android app. On the other hand, new languages may pose a significant challenge for Java in the Android era.
Java and Kotlin are the two languages under question. First, let’s learn about these two languages and how they work before deciding which one is best for creating an Android app.
What is Java?
In 1995, Java was released as a high-level, class-based, object-oriented programming language. Oracle manages it, and it runs on over 3 billion devices worldwide. Android applications, online and desktop applications, and web servers use it heavily.
The language is prevalent, with widespread community support and several professional options. Banking, financial services, big data, and retail outlets are all industries that employ Java.
Advantages of Java
- Java is object-oriented, making it easier to create modular code and programmes.
- Java is adaptable enough to work on a variety of platforms. It’s a platform-agnostic language.
- Java is a cross-platform language with the WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere) capability.
- Java supports many threads. It signifies that the programme allows many components of the application to run at the same time, maximising CPU utilisation.
Limitations of Java
- Compared to C++ or C, Java may become memory-intensive and result in poor performance. Poor performance is because Machine code must translate Java to machine code.
- Java is mainly concerned with storage rather than data backup.
- The GUI builders in Java are still in their infancy. Well-known frameworks such as SWT, JavaFX, and JSF are employed for UI development. Before choosing the correct GUI builder, you may need to spend more time studying.
- In Java, unsigned int and unsigned char are not supported. However, Java 8 includes unsigned int and unsigned extended APIs.
What is Kotlin?
JetBrains created Kotlin, a cross-platform, statically typed, general-purpose language.
Kotlin, like Java, has become a popular language for creating Android apps. The popularity of Kotlin is demonstrated by the fact that, like Java, Android Studio provides built-in support for Kotlin.
Kotlin is mainly used to create Android apps, whereas Java offers a broader range of uses. For Android development, it’s best considered as a more feature-rich Java. It is also fully compatible with Java, making the transition considerably simpler.
Advantages of Kotlin
- Kotlin programmes are written in bytecode, which is a compiled format. After the developer has finished developing and assembling the code, it is run through a virtual machine rather than the computer’s processor.
- The advantage of Kotlin is that it is simple to integrate with Maven, Gradle, and other build systems. The best part about utilising Kotlin is that you can continue to use all of your old Java libraries and frameworks. Furthermore, complex frameworks that rely on annotation processing are included.
- A developer can easily convert Java to Kotlin and save time using a new JetBrains capability built into IntelliJ. You also won’t have to retype any mundane code with Kotlin.
- You don’t have to worry about NullPointerExceptions in Kotlin. The Kotlin system will assist us in avoiding null pointer exceptions. When comparing Java with Kotlin, the Kotlin compiler will refuse to build any code that assigns or returns null.
Limitations of Kotlin
- The compilation performance of Kotlin is slower. It is Kotlin’s primary drawback. In some cases, Kotlin surpasses Java in compilation time, but the difference is often significant.
- Switching from Java to Kotlin is difficult for programmers accustomed to that language. As a result, arranging Kotlin training may incur significant costs for a company.
- Kotlin is fast while running incremental builds. On the other hand, Java wins when creating a clean appearance for Android apps.
- Kotlin has been around for six years. Kotlin is used by more than 8% of developers. Developers find it tough to overcome problems in the development process due to a lack of tools and community assistance.
Advantage of Java Over Kotlin | Java vs Kotlin
- Checked Exceptions: The first is that Java has checked exceptions. However, Kotlin does not observe modest package effects at the end that require exception specifications, both of which could improve developer productivity and code satisfaction. Without them, productivity was much lower, with no improvement in code quality.
- Non-Private Fields: Encapsulation is essential in any programme for achieving a high level of maintainability by encapsulating an item’s illustration. It is also feasible, for example, to change without requiring callers to be transferred, provided that most people’s API remains unchanged in non-personal or public fields. Many beneficial instances exist in Java, where the colours of objects change depending on the representation. Its approach to such fields reveals the factor’s illustration to callers, whereas Kotlin lacks non-personal areas.
- Static Members and Static Methods: Things are moving swiftly from Java to Kotlin in Android development, and one of the most challenging problems developers have when switching from Java to Kotlin is implementing a static technique because there is nothing fixed in Kotlin. You read that accurately! If you’re an Android developer, Kotlin doesn’t have an improved keyboard, and if you want to write Android apps in Java, you’ll need to utilise static keywords. Static variables belong to a category, and not its instance is also equal to static techniques in your software to design a few static variables and static strategies.
- Primitive types: In Kotlin, primitive types are the building blocks. These type’s own Kotlin, in other words. they are thus highly efficient in terms of both processing time and memory use.
- Ternary Operator Support: Java includes this support, which helps to reduce code length. You will have specific difficulties during development without using static methods and ternary operators. Simply put, Kotlin does not have this freedom.
Advantage of Kotlin Over Java | Java vs Kotlin
- Getting access to a member of a null reference can result in a null reference exception in several programming languages, including Java.
- It is the equivalent of a null pointer exception in Java for a brief moment. Its goal is to eliminate the null pointer exception. Not only that, but the only options for npe in our code are a specific call to via invalid pointer error or the use of exclamatory or now not-operator next is a different interface for the reading and mutable collection.
- Kotlin library provides standard interfaces, training, and functions for creating, populating, and managing any collection. It positions these accumulating interfaces and related features. The well-known libraries of the Kotlin collections package include an implementation for basic collection types such as assets, lists, and maps.
When all of Java’s flaws are considered, particularly the issues with Null pointer exceptions, Kotlin emerges as the clear winner.
Although Java is still a popular language for Android development because the operating system is built on it, Kotlin’s advantages over Java, such as a superior type system, incremental code changes, a combination of language databases, and less coding, make it more in demand in the future.
Kotlin is a fast-emerging programming language that gives developers plenty of possibilities to experiment with current programming, making it an excellent language for developing Android apps. Because Kotlin is almost identical to Java, we can use it because it accomplishes everything that standard programming should.
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